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Vol. 28. Num. 3.May - June 2017Pages 103-158
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Vol. 28. Num. 3.May - June 2017Pages 103-158
Review article
DOI: 10.1016/j.neucie.2017.02.003
Biology and mechanobiology of the intervertebral disc
Biología y mecanobiología del disco intervertebral
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Emilio González Martíneza, José García-Cosamalónb,
Corresponding author
jcosamalon@smonica.com

Corresponding author.
, Iván Cosamalón-Ganc, Marta Esteban Blancoc, Olivia García-Suarezc, José A. Vegac
a Servicio de Neurocirugía, Complejo Asistencial Universitario de León, León, Spain
b Instituto de Biomedicina, Universidad de León, León, Spain
c Departamento de Morfología y Biología Celular, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Oviedo, Oviedo, Spain
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Abstract

The intervertebral disc (IVD) is noted for its low cell content, and being the largest avascular structure of human body. The low amount of cells in the disc have to adapt to an anaerobic metabolism with low oxygen pressure and acidic pH. Apart from surviving in an adverse microenvironment, they are exposed to a high level of mechanical stress. The biological adaptation of cells to acidosis and hyperosmolarity conditions are regulated by mechanoproteins, which are responsible for converting a mechanical signal into a cellular response, thus modifying its gene expression. Mechanobiology helps us to better understand the pathophysiology of IVD and its potential biological repair.

Keywords:
Intervertebral disc
Intervertebral disc biology
Intervertebral disc mechanobiology
Mechanoproteins in the intervertebral disc
Resumen

El disco intervertebral (DIV) se caracteriza por su escasa celularidad y por constituir la estructura avascular más grande del cuerpo humano. Las escasas células del disco tienen que adaptarse a un metabolismo anaerobio con baja tensión de O2 y pH ácido. Además de sobrevivir a un microambiente adverso, están expuestas a un elevado estrés mecánico. La adaptación biológica de las células a las condiciones de acidosis e hiperosmolaridad está regulada por mecanoproteínas responsables de convertir una señal mecánica en respuesta celular, modificando su expresión génica. La mecanobiología nos ayuda a entender mejor la biopatología del DIV y su potencial reparación biológica.

Palabras clave:
Disco intervertebral
Biología del disco intervertebral
Mecanobiología del disco intervertebral
Mecanoproteínas en el disco intervertebral

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